大观博物馆

大观博物馆简介

开封大学重视人才培养与文化传承相结合。在河南省(开封大学)非物质文化遗产研究基地、宋代陶模研究所建设的基础上,设立大观博物馆。博物馆将以开封市文化历史名城建设为依托,以省非物质文化研究基地为平台,开展征集保护、收藏研究、展示互动、学术交流、文化传承教育等工作,服务于开封社会经济发展。

目前,已建成开封大学大观(网络)博物馆。博物馆聘请河南大学程明生教授、桂东族群研究所所长李晓明博士、河南省美术馆化建国馆长等著名专家学者为博物馆顾问。大观博物馆位于开封大学大观广场之北,建筑面积1600平方米。博物馆以中国历史大系为博物馆的展览线索,以夏代(老邱)、战国(魏国大梁)、五代时期的(后梁、后晋、后汉、后周)、宋代(东京)、金代(陪都、国都)、明代(藩王周府)为展览重点,以开封出土的文物为主要展品,以相同历史时期的标准器辅助展览。

《中国古都学会2013年(开封)年会宣言》确认,早在4000多年前,开封就是人文始祖带领部族生存活动的主要地区,是早期华夏文明重要的发祥地,为中华民族的早期文明作出了重要贡献。

据史料记载,公元前21世纪夏朝建立后,至第七位夏王杼时,将国都设在位居中原腹地的老丘(开封)。夏定都于老丘历时200余年,这对推动中原地区的开发和夏王朝的兴盛,发挥了十分重要的作用。战国时期的魏都大梁,是开封建都史上的第二个都城。自隋唐以后,五代时期的后梁、后晋、后汉、后周都把这里作为都城。北宋以东京开封为国都,历经九帝168年,这不仅使开封成为全国的政治、经济、文化中心,也使开封成为当时世界上人口最多、经济文化最发达、城市功能最完备的国际大都市。金朝统治下的开封,先为陪都,继为国都,依然保持了北方政治、经济、文化中心的地位。

上述史实表明,历史上的开封,从成为第一个世袭制王朝——夏的都城开始,到战国时期的魏,再到五代时期的后梁、后晋、后汉、后周及其以后的北宋和金,都是引领一国的都邑,是名副其实的“八朝古都”和“中华名城”。它的重要历史地位应该得到充分的肯定。

《中国古都学会2013年(开封)年会宣言》

 Confirmed by “The Declaration of the Chinese Ancient Capital Association Annual Conference 2013”, as early as 4000 years ago, Kaifeng was one of the major areas where tribes began living activities and an important birthplace of Chinese civilization, which had made an important contribution to the early civilization of Chinese nation. According to historical records, after the construction of the Xia Dynasty, from the 21st century BC to the reign of the seventh emperor Zhu, the emperors always made the capital in the central part of the central plains, Laoqiu (Kaifeng). Located in Laoqiu, the Xia Dynasty lasted more than 200 years, which played an important role to promote the development of the central plains and the thriving of the Xia Dynasty. In the Warring States Period, Daliang was the capital of Wei, which was the second capital in Kaifeng’s capital history. After the Sui and Tang Dynasties, in the Five Dynasties Period, the dynasties of Later Liang, Later Jin, Later Han and Later Zhou made Kaifeng  the capital. In the Northern Song Dynasty Period, Dongjing (Kaifeng) was the capital. The Northern Song Dynasty lasted 168years and nine emperors, which not only made  Kaifeng become the political, economic and cultural center but also made Kaifeng the international metropolis with the largest population, the most developed economy, the most advanced culture and the perfect urban functions. Under the rule of the Jin Dynasty, at first Kaifeng was the secondary capital, then the capital, which maintained the northern center position in the field of politics, economy and culture.

The above facts show that in the history of Kaifeng, from the first hereditary dynasty Xia Dynasty, to Wei in the Warring States Period, then to the Later Liang, Later Jin, Later Han and Later Zhou in the Five Dynasties Period, Kaifeng is always a leading city. It is worthy of the name of “Ancient Capital of Eight Dynasties” and “Chinese Famous City”. Its important historical position should be fully affirmation.

第一部分:滋润华夏 (第一个世袭制王朝——夏的都城)

据文献记载,公元前2071年,中国已进入第一个世袭王朝——夏朝。夏朝,(帝杼)曾在开封(陈留县)一带建都长达232年,史称老丘。春秋时期(公元前8世纪),郑庄公时,在今开封城南朱仙镇附近修筑储粮仓城,以“启拓封疆”之意名“启封”。汉代初年因避汉景帝刘启之名讳,将启封更名为“开封”。

Part One: Nourishing Chinese Civilization (the First Hereditary Dynasty, the Xia Dynasty’s Capital)

   According to historical records, from 2071BC, the first hereditary dynasty , the Xia Dynasty made Kaifeng (Chenliu County) the capital for 232years, known to the history as “Laoqiu”. In the Spring and Autumn Period (in the 8th century BC), Duke Zhuang of Zheng built a granary storage city near the town of Zhuxian where was today’s Kaifeng. Then Duke Zhuang of Zheng named the city “Qifeng”. In the early years of the Han Dynasty, “Qifeng” was renamed as “Kaifeng” in order to avoid the name of Liuqi, the Emperor Jing of the Han Dynasty.

第二部分:雄风魏汉 (战国时期的魏都大梁)

公元前361年,战国时期的魏惠王将国都从山西安邑(今山西夏县、安邑县一带)迁至仪邑,并改称“大梁”。这是开封有明确历史记载的第一次建都。魏惠王迁都大梁后,开凿鸿沟、引圃田水入淮河。水利既兴,使农业、商业得到极大发展,都城日趋繁荣。修长城、联诸侯,国力日盛,乃得称霸于诸国,使大梁城与秦国的咸阳、楚国的郢都并列,成为当时国内最发达的名都大邑。魏国在大梁建都,历六世136年。历史上曾发生了孟子游梁、窃符救赵,以及孙膑、庞涓等诸多故事。秦统一六国后,实行郡县制,开封作为败亡国的国都被降为浚仪县,属三川郡。“浚仪”作为开封的名称,一直沿用了八百年左右。

Part Two: Powerful Wei and the Han Dynasty ( Daliang in  the Warring States Period)

In 361BC, Emperor Hui of Wei moved the capital from Anyi, Shanxi Province (near today’s Xia County and Anyi County, Shanxi Province) to  Yiyi and renamed Yiyi as Daliang. This was the earliest historical record about Kaifeng being the capital. After  Emperor Hui of Wei moved the capital to Daliang, he created canals and drew water from the Putian to the Huai River. After the water conservancy was finished , the capital got a great development in agriculture and commerce. The  capital was booming day by day. Then Emperor Hui of Wei built walls and allied  governors. The Wei had strong national strength and dominated other feudatory states. Daliang, Yingdu of the Chu and Xianyang of the Qin were the most developed cities. Located in Daliang, the Wei lasted six emperors and 136years. Some famous historical events happened here such as “Mencius travelling Daliang” “stealing Commander's Seal to help Zhao” and the events about Sun Bin and Pang Juan. After the Qin unified the other six states and implemented  the  system of prefectures and counties, Kaifeng was downgraded as Xunyi County under the jurisdiction of Sanchuan County. Xunyi was used for more than eight hundred years.

第三部分:儒佛南北 (南北朝儒佛融汇的汴州)

公元534年东魏孝静帝时,设立梁州辖陈留、开封(梁州)、阳夏三郡。北周武帝建德五年,改梁州为“汴州”,由县治改为州治,失落了数百年的开封又慢慢的恢复了元气,开封(梁州)也成为北魏对南部各朝作战的水运线上的八个重要仓库之一。北齐文宣帝天保六年(公元555年)和天保十年(公元559年)曾先后建了著名的建国寺(大相国寺)和独居寺(今铁塔一带),佛文化的发展对后来的东京文化的勃兴做了前期的准备。隋炀帝时期开凿的大运河(2000多公里)的中段就是联通黄河与淮河的汴河。位于汴河要冲的开封(汴州),是东都洛阳的重要门户,天时地利为开封(汴州)带来了迅速发展的机遇。

Part Three: The Development of Confucianism and Buddhism in the Southern and Northern Dynasties( the Integration between Confucianism and Buddhism in Bianzhou)

In 534 AD, the Emperor Xiaojing of the Eastern Wei Dynasty made Chenliu, Kaifeng(Liangzhou) and Yangxia counties under the jurisdiction of Liangzhou. In 576AD, Emperor Wu of the Northern Zhou Dynasty renamed Liangzhou as Bianzhou, changed the county jurisdiction into district government, which made Kaifeng recover from the past lost gradually. Kaifeng was one of the eight warehouses in the water transport  against external aggression. Emperor Wenxuan of the Northern Qi Dynasty built Jianguo Temple( Xiangguo Temple) in 555AD and Duju Temple in 559AD( near today’s Iron Tower). The development of  Buddhism made the preparatory work for the prosperity of later Dongjing Culture. In the Sui Dynasty, Emperor Yang created canals( more than 2000 kilo-meters). The middle part was Bian River which connected the Yellow River with the Huai River.  Kaifeng(Bianzhou) played an important role in Bian River and it was also a pivotal gateway for Luoyang. The timing and place provided Kaifeng(Bianzhou)  with rapid development opportunities

第四部分:风韵大唐 (中原之中身水陆交通枢纽)

开封北周时名“汴州”。隋初因之,大业初州废。唐武德四年(公元621)复置,天宝元年(公元742)改称陈留郡,乾元元年(公元758)复为“汴州”。后梁开平元年(公元907)升为东都“开封府”,是为都城。其后虽一度迁都洛阳,“开封”改为陪都,但都、府名称不废。后唐都洛阳,同光元年(923)罢东京开封府”,降为“汴州”。后晋天福三年(公元938)复都“汴州”,又建为东京“开封府”。自此历后汉、后周入宋,因袭不变。唐廷和元年(公元712)始,以浚仪、开封两县为附郭。

唐廷从天宝十四载起,先后以河南、淮西、永平、宣武军节度使驻此,“汴州”遂又成为中原的重要军镇。建中四年(公元783)十二月,叛藩李希烈陷汴州,次年正月以汴州为大梁府,称“楚帝”。唐末,宣武军节度使朱温以汴州为根据地,称雄中原,后篡唐称帝,建都于此。自此终五代,汴州长期为都置府,成为中原朝廷的政治中心。

Part Four: The Charming Tang Dynasty (Located in Central Plain as Land-water Terminal)

In the Northern Zhou Period, Kaifeng was called Bianzhou. In 742AD, Kaifeng was called Chenliu County and recovered the name of Bianzhou in 758AD. In 907AD, Kaifeng rose to “Kaifeng Capital”. Then Kaifeng was degraded as secondary capital to Luoyang, but it still kept the capital name. In 923AD, Kaifeng Capital was degraded as Bianzhou. In 938AD, Kaifeng recovered the name of Kaifeng Capital.  From then on, Kaifeng always kept the name. In 712AD, Xunyi and Kaifeng County were under the rule of Kaifeng.

From 755ADregional chiefs and the station troops from Henan, Huaixi, Yongping and Xuanwu army guraded here one after another. Then Bianzhou became an important military city. At the end of 783 AD, rebel military chief Li Xilie and rebel forces lost in Bianzhou. In the first month of the following year, he made Bianzhou the Daliang Capital and proclaimed himself Emperor Chu. In the Late Tang Dynasty, the regional chief of Xuanwu army Zhu Wen made Bianzhou his base and took forcible possession of Central Plains. Then he usurped the throne, proclaimed emperor and made Kaifeng the capital. From then to Five Dynasties, Bianzhou was always the capital and the political center of the Central Plains.

第五部分:洗礼五代 (后梁、后晋、后汉、后周的都城 )

五代时期,除了后唐之外,后梁、后晋、后汉、后周先后定都于开封, 称之为“东都”或“东京”,五代的“东京”正式取代了洛阳成为政治、经济、文化、军事中心。后梁定都“东京”十七年,租赋较轻,人民得到休养生息。同时,使中国的政治中心从西部转向东部平原地区,具有重要的里程碑意义。公元923年,后梁灭亡,继起的后唐定都洛阳,“东京”仍置宣武军。公元936年,石敬瑭灭唐,建立后晋,又从洛阳迁都“东京”。公元947年后晋亡。后汉立国仍定都“东京”。公元951年,郭威发动澶州(今濮阳)兵变,灭后汉建后周。郭威勤政爱民,政治改革使后周有了新的气象。公元954年,周世宗柴荣即位。柴荣在郭威的基础上,整顿朝纲,改革弊制,在内政和军事都取得了很大进展。使开封经济进一步提升。此后,开封(东京)长期为中原地区的水运枢纽和政治中心。

Part Five: Baptism of the Five Dynasties (the capital of Later Liang, Later Jin, Later Han and Later Zhou)

 In the Five Dynasties Period, Later Liang, Later Jin, Later Han and Later Zhou all made Kaifeng the capital. Kaifeng was called Dongdu or Dongjing. Dongjing in the period of the Five Dynasties took place of Luoyang and became the political, economical, cultural and military center. Later Liang made Dongjing the capital for 17years. In this period, the rent was  little which was helpful for the people to recuperate and build up strength. At the same time, it played an important role to make the political center move from the west area to the east plains. In 923AD, Later Liang died. Then the Tang made Luoyang the capital. Xuanwu Army still stayed in Dongjing. In 936AD, Shi Jingtang destroyed Tang, built Later Jin and moved capital from Luoyang to Dongjing. In 947AD, Later Jin died. Later Han still made Dongjing the capital. In 951AD, Guo Wei led the Tanzhou (today’s Puyang) Military Mutiny, destroyed Later Han and built Later Zhou. Guo Wei worried about people's life and the state affairs all day. The political reform made Later Zhou booming. In 954AD, Emperor Shizong of Later Zhou, Chairong ascended the throne. On the basis of Guo Wei,Chairong  improved and rectified the rules and regulations and reformed the system, which made a progress in internal affairs and military affairs. It promoted the economical development of Kaifeng. From then on, Kaifeng (Dongjing) was the road-water terminal and political center for a long time.

第六部分:辉煌大宋 (世界名都 北宋都城)

公元960年,后周殿前都点检赵匡胤在开封城北40里的陈桥驿(现属新乡市封丘县)发动“陈桥兵变”, 建立了北宋,结束了唐末五代藩镇割据和战乱不休的局面,北宋时期的东京政通人和,经济繁荣,富甲天下,人口过百万,风景旖旎,城郭气势恢弘,是开封历史上最为辉煌的时期,不仅是全国政治、经济、文化的中心,也是当时世界上最繁华的大都市之一。史书更以“八荒争凑,万国咸通”来描述“东京”。北宋画家张择端的作品《清明上河图》,就是北宋京城繁华景象的写照。北宋时期的“东京”跃居为当时世界上最为繁华著名的大都市。

Part Six: The Glorious Song Dynasty (World’s Famous City, the Capital of the Northern Song )

In 960AD, Zhao Kuangyin led “Chenqiao Military Mutiny” in Chenqiao Station which was 20 kilometers from the north area of Kaifeng(today’s Fengqiu County of Xinxiang City). He built the Northern Song and made the military governorship, splittism and the chaos of war come to an end. In the Northern Song Period, Dongjing was developed in economy and advanced in culture. It was the most glorious time in the history of Kaifeng. It was not only the national political, economical and cultural center, but also one of the world’s most prosperous cities. According to the historical records, Kaifeng was one of the most flourishing cities in the world at that time. In the picture of Along the River during the Qing Ming Festival, Zhang Zeduan described the scene of prosperity of Kaifeng faithfully.

第七部分:异彩金朝 (金朝国都和陪都)

靖康二年(公元1127年)金国灭北宋后,称开封为“汴京”。贞元元年(公元1153年),海陵王完颜亮迁都到中都大兴府,改汴京为“南京开封府”,成为金国陪都。公元1155年,汴京宋故宫发生大火,建筑几乎毁尽。正隆六年公元(公元1161年)初,完颜亮南下侵宋,一度以“南京开封府”为统治中心,贞祐二年(公元1214年),金宣宗为避蒙古军锋,迁都“南京开封府”。天兴二年(公元1233年),金哀宗在开封府被蒙古军围困的情况下,逃出开封府,迁都归德府(今商丘)。

Part Seven: The Shining Jin Dynasty (the Capital and Secondary Capital of the Jin Dynasty)

In 1127AD, the Jin destroyed the Northern Song and renamed Kaifeng as Bianjing. In 1153AD, Emperor Hailing of Jin, Wan Yanliang moved the capital to Daxing capital of Zhongdu and renamed Bianjing as “Kaifeng Capital of Nanjing” which was the secondary capital of the Jin. In 1155AD, Bianjing imperial palace was ruined by the flood. In 1161AD, Wan Yanliang invaded the Song and made “Kaifeng Capital of Nanjing” the domination center. In 1214AD, Emperor Xuanzong of Jin moved the capital in order to avoid Mongolian army. In 1233, Emperor Aizong of Jin trapped by Mongolian army, escaped from Kaifeng and moved the capital to Defu (today’s Shangqiu).

第八部分:商阜元代 (元朝行政中心,经济繁荣的商业城市)

元灭金后,设河南江北行中书省于开封。元朝末年,“天下义军共主”小明王韩林儿率领的红巾起义军,曾在开封建立“龙凤”大宋农民政权。在元朝汴梁仍是一座经济繁荣的商业城市,马可·波罗在其游记《马可·波罗游记》中曾有对开封的描述。根据元末的记载,汴梁城的人口仍有20万,在当时地方城市中仍是屈指可数的异数。元朝定都北京(大都),取代了汴梁的地位,从此开封(汴梁)成为一个地方性的行政中心。

Part Eight: The Flourishing Yuan Dynasty (the Political and Economical Center)

After the Yuan destroyed the Jin, it set up Jiangbeihang central secretariat in Kaifeng, Henan Province. In the late period of the Yuan Dynasty, Han Lin’er led Hongjin insurrectionary army and established “Longfeng” peasant government in Kaifeng. In the Yuan Dynasty, Bianliang was still a prosperous city. In The Travels of Marco Polo,  he described Kaifeng as a flourishing city faithfully. According to the historical records, the population of Bianliang was more than 200 thousand in the late period of the Yuan Dynasty. The Yuan Dynasty made Beijing (Dadu) the capital, which took the place of Bianliang. From then on, Kaifeng(Bianliang)  became a local administrative center.

第九部分:星辰大明 (明代藩王周府林立的中原第一都市)

洪武元年(公元1368年),朱元璋改汴梁路为北京开封府,并把应天也定为都城,实行两京制。公元1379年,罢北京称号,最终决定定都南京。封第五子朱橚就藩开封,称周王,如梦录》对明代开封城王府林立,诸宫相接的景象有具体的描述:“大街小巷,王府、乡绅牌坊、鱼鳞相次。满城街市,不可计数,势若两京。”。“天下藩封数汴中”周王本身也很贤明,再加上开封府是河南承宣布政使司的治所,开封成为中原第一都会,开封城也仅次于北京和南京,称为中原大都市。

Part Nine: The Shining Ming Dynasty (the Top City of the Central Plains in the Ming Dynasty)

In 1368AD, Zhu Yuanzhang renamed Bianliang as Beijing Kaifeng Capital, made Yingtian the capital and implemented two-capital system. In 1379AD, the capital was moved from Beijing to Nanjing. The fifth son of Zhuan Yuanzhang, Zhu Su proclaimed himself Emperor Zhou in Kaifeng. According to Ru Meng Lu, it described Kaifeng as prosperous as the two capitals. Emperor Zhou was wise and Kaifeng was an important political city, which made Kaifeng become the first city of Central Plains, behind Beijing and Nanjing.



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